0000061128 00000 n << /H [ 931 905 ] Inclusive education in South Africa - policies Prof Mirna Nel Optentia Research Focus Area North-West University South Africa Mirna.Nel@nwu.ac.za. The Guidelines for Responding to Learner Diversity in the Classroom through Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (Department of Education 2011) provide practical The teacher can present, for example, the learning materials through a variety of media (visual, auditory or tactile), and provide multiple examples that In order to make this claim, we present a background on inclusive education in South Africa, followed by a background and overview of UDL. %%EOF incorporate curriculum changes in the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) and the revised document forms part of the CAPS orientation programme for teachers http://bit.ly/OeUOSF. References. 51 0 obj Author, Providence, RI. Such instruction would be beneficial not only for teachers Cambridge. Orkwis, R., 1999, Curriculum Access and Universal Design for Learning, ERIC/OSEP Digest #586. /Pages 48 0 R in South African Schools. It has promoted and supported inclusive education practices in South Africa since 1995. 0000065557 00000 n More specifically, NCLB required that all students, (1) be included in state-wide assessments, (2) meet assessment It is against this background that the article aims to determine which ecological aspects have an influence on the implementation of IE in mainstream primary schools. This is reflected internationally in the continued growth of inclusion initiatives in the United States, and in other Dobbelaere & Corrigan 1998; Zindler 2009; Peters 2004). Inclusive Education South Africa is a registered non-profit organization. adjust a varied curriculum in which barriers to learning have been reduced or, possibly, eliminated. South Africa has adopted an inclusive education policy in order to address barriers to learning in the education system. 0. Hall, T., Strangman, N. & Meyer, A., 2003, Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation, Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing classrooms’, South African Journal of Education 21(4), 256–260. (p. 2). << were developed, going beyond mere accommodations and modifications, toward addressing all students’ educational needs through innovative and pro-active Some questions were ‘The When and How of Leaving School: The Policy Implications of New Evidence on Secondary Schooling in South Africa.’ 09/11. components, elaborated in two sets of guidelines: The National Strategy on Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support (SIAS); (Department of Education 2008) guides inclusive education policy by defining /Root 52 0 R Modes of learning are idiosyncratic, both socially and individually, through the distinctions culture raises between the cognitive and social characteristics of being human. %PDF-1.4 This report, The State of Inclusive Education in South Africa and the Implications for Teacher Training Programmes, arises from a collaborative partnership between the British Council, the University of South Africa (UNISA), Media in Education Trust Africa (MIET AFRICA) and associate partner, the Department of Basic Education (DBE). instructional design of the general education curriculum (Hitchcock, Meyer, Rose & Jackson 2002; Simmons & Kame’enui 1996). US Congress, 1975, US Public Law 94–192: Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 1975, USA. SIAS strategy provides guidelines on early identification and support, the determination of nature and level of support required by learners, and identification of After a basic introduction to UDL, participants’ responses to the activity conducted in the first session were noted (Table 1). Society 5(4), 381–391. • Session 4 was a concluding session where the participants had the opportunity to ask questions, and provided feedback to the presenters verbally and through Edyburn, D., 2010, ‘Would You Recognize Universal Design for Learning If You Saw It? 2.3.4 Government strategic plan for education provision in . Engelbrecht, P., 2006, ‘The implementation of inclusive education in South Africa after ten years of democracy’, European Journal of Psychology see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember without having to adapt thecurriculum repeatedly to meet special needs. Its efforts are aimed at educators and professionals, giving them the knowledge and tools necessary to provide high-quality education for all students, regardless of disability or background. policy. learning). • to understand and experience the steps involved in identifying relevant assistive devices and computer technology to support varied learning programmes.<. In recent years, particularly in the period after the adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) (hereinafter CRPD), the discourse on the education of children with disabilities has mainly focused on the potential of White Paper 6 on Special Needs Education (2001) … Inclusive Education • South Africa is in its 15th year of implementing its Policy on Inclusive Education as outlined in Education White Paper 6 (2001) • Transformation of an education system from “special education” and “mainstream education” into one integrated system which embraces justice, equity and quality. Salend, S., 2000, ‘Strategies and resources to evaluate the impact of inclusion programs on students’, Intervention in School and Clinic 35, Sapon-Shevin, M., Dobbelaere, A. As one participant commented, ‘There was lots of room to apply and define more specific ways for therapists and teachers to work What evidence exists of UDL benefit internationally? 0000049997 00000 n Working towards inclusive education in South African classrooms E. Prinsloo Department of Educational Studies, University of South Africa, P.O. UDL relevant to the South African situation: ‘The concepts were applicable to the South African context … this will need support from the This allows for a certain simplicity that is very attractive to the busy /T 150040 experience barriers to learning. to video UDL case studies, debriefing, and the discussion of findings. The teacher may use strategies that allow the learner to practice tasks with different levels of support and to demonstrate their knowledge The Institutes for Research, US Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology. department of education’ (Special education teacher 2). Participant suggestions as to how UDL can be implemented, has been noted education. • multiple means of engagement: provide multiple, flexible options for engagement to support affective learning (the WHY of learning). Challenges in the implementation of inclusive education. Teacher training programmes do not appear to be adequately addressing this need, resulting in stress for teachers and lack of progress of learners with disabilities 294–309. margins (CAST 2011; Maryland State Department of Education 2011; Meyer & Rose 2005; Paul V. Sherlock Center 2011; UDL-IRN 2012). testifies to the attractive simplicity of the method. approach is expressed below: UDL is designed from the outset to meet the needs of all learners, making costly, time-consuming, and after-the-fact changes unnecessary. all learners in the general education curriculum. learning standards to be established for all students. 2012; Engelbrecht 2006). Although the theoretical concept of inclusive education has been widely embraced in South Africa, it is yet to be translated into practice (Donohue & Bornman, 2014; Slee, 2013). Printer, Pretoria. An additional advantage of UDL is that therapists and teachers can readily share the language of UDL. There are a variety of positive and negative impacts when it comes to inclusive education, both on the students as well as the teachers. Reynolds, M.C., Wang, M., & Walberg, H.J., 1987, ‘The necessary restructuring of special and regular education’, Exceptional Children 53, ensure successful integration of UDL in practice, informed integration of technology supports, and successful reduction of barriers to education for learners in the & Voltz, D. L., 2001, ‘What matters most in inclusive education: A practical guide for moving forward’, Intervention in Learners want and need to learn in ways that are accessible to them, and they want to have varied choices for 2.3.4 Government strategic plan for education provision in In South Africa we now have a strong legislative and policy framework promoting an Inclusive Education system. of instruction. barriers to learning. South African inclusion initiatives, as described in the previous section, ‘Inclusive education in South Africa’, seek comparable learning models 2.3.3 Barriers to teaching and learning in South Africa 27 . emotionally, then a whole range of needs can be met. 1–16. CAST Inc., Wakefield, MA. 108 of 1996, Government Printer, Pretoria. Groups were asked to respond to the educators’ needs, but the potential for change cannot be realised without significant and on-going training and professional development of all professionals 0000046813 00000 n The UDL framework encourages In this paper we introduce UDL principles and implementation guidelines, and argue that UDL can have a useful application in the South African context of inclusive /Length 831 According to Stofile (2004), the emphasis on inclusive education as a new reality in South Africa also brought about major philosophical shifts in the entire education system. Pretoria. UDL-IRN, 2012, What is Universal Design for Learning?, viewed on 29 July 2012, from School & Clinic 37(1), 23–30. (eds. for providing effective instruction for all children, together, in inclusive educational settings. The implementation of inclusive education in South Africa after ten years of democracy Petra Engelbrecht University of Stellenbosch, South Africa Inclusive education in South Africa has not been promoted as simply one more option for education but as an educational strategy that can contribute to a democratic society. It was with this motivation that the conceptual and instructional framework of UDL was presented in a workshop held at the University of Cape www.udlcenter.org) continue their efforts to develop UDL as a comprehensive curriculum design framework and approach that can effectively support the inclusion of However, the implementation of this policy is hampered by the lack of teachers’ skills and knowledge in differentiating the curriculum to address a wide range of learning needs. the General Curriculum, viewed 25 August 2011, from barriers to instruction.’. address learner variability. >> This principle involves creating interesting learning opportunities that motivate and stimulate learners according to their personal backgrounds and interests. Lucia Potgieter-Groot, Maretha Visser, Carien Lubbe-de Beer, Emotional and behavioural barriers to learning and development in the inclusive education classrooms in South Africa: Developing a training programme for teachers, Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 10.2989/17280583.2011.639775, 24, 1, (59-71), (2012). Department of Education, 2001, Education White Paper 6. The article ends with some thoughts about the implications of the issues discussed for research and teaching of inclusive education in South African higher education. She will be part of a South African delegation coming to Brussels (BE) for a panel discussion on inclusive education on 26 October: “SEN Act, one year later: what can we learn from South Africa?”. approaches), multiple means of student expression and actions, and multiple ways to engage and motivate learners, UDL supports maximal learning for the widest range of curricula that recognise, honour, and address the full range of learners’ natural variation of styles, needs, and preferences, teachers can develop, implement, and identified earlier in this paper, and others have emerged from the field (Edyburn 2010). Some comments revealed that participants ‘would have wanted more time to practice the /P 0 /Linearized 1 The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST, In an effort to explore at least some of these important questions further, and recognising the potential of a ‘good fit’ between UDL and the need for are more steeped in medical or psychological terms. It was in this connection that a discussion took place on how an education recycling centre that from Brand, S., Favazza, A.E and Dalton, E.M., 2012, Universal design for learning: A blueprint for success for all learners, Kappa Delta Pi Record 48(3), (Table 1). No votes yet. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03173414. Learning for Democracy in an Inclusive Education System: Implications for Teacher Development National Workshop Report, 2−3 December 2013 Click here to dowload Conference Report Children with Disabilities in South Africa: A situational Analysis 2001 - 2011. CAST, 1998, Design Principles for Student Access. The strategy also provides guidelines on the central role of parents and teachers in implementing the strategy. While inclusive education has always been an apex priority of our country, now more than ever, teachers in South Africa need the skills, knowledge and attitudes to … UDL is a conceptual and practical model for the education community, providing a framework and guidelines to change the way teachers teach, the way learners learn, By paring down teaching and learning to the three processes of flexible methods of presentation, expression and Hitchcock, Meyer, A., Rose, D. & Jackson, 2002, ‘Providing new access to the general curriculum: Universal Design for Learning’, Teaching Exceptional teacher. The policy calls for a significant conceptual shift that is based on the following premises: • all children, youth and adults have the potential to learn, given the necessary support Participant responses to specific activities are presented to illustrate their application of UDL in the ), Responding to the challenges of can be of great interest to educators, administrators, and education support professionals around the world. Engelbrecht, P., Swart, E. & Eloff, I., 2001, ‘Stress and coping skills of teachers with a learner with Down’s syndrome in inclusive involved in the system of education. Activities included participant discussion the needs of a growing diversity of learners. Donohue and Bornman (2014:1) regard current policy (White Paper 6) as 0000026072 00000 n base, basic components and overall structure of UDL are given below. The advantage of inclusive education is that it places students in special education programs alongside their peers in typical education programs. Participants generally benefitted from the practical nature of the workshop, as indicated by the overall workshop evaluation results; however, a one-day workshop was As such, it aims to apply the same principles to all learning Without committing an oversight, I wish to … The policy asserts that in order to make inclusive education a reality, there needs to be a conceptual shift regarding the provision of support for learners who Educational reforms addressing inclusive education 37 Quality of special needs education 37 Challenges 38 2.3.6 Inclusive education in the United States of America 38 2.4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN SOUTH AFRICA 41 2.4.1 Inclusion in South African context 41 Paul V. Sherlock Center, 2011, Rhode Island Modified UDL Educator Checklist version 1.3. can be modified in complexity to meet a range of learning needs. The implementation of UDL is often regarded as a high-technology option; however, learning activities conducted in the workshop showed that technology can be pursued The day’s programme included the following outcomes to be achieved by the end of the day: • to understand the concept of UDL and how it can be used to ensure that all learners can learn Luftig, R. & Pavri, S., 2000, ‘The social face of inclusive education: are students with learning disabilities really included in the 0000006943 00000 n engagement, all those working with the learner can collaborate with a common understanding. and skills in a diversity of ways. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a new model for designing all aspects of the 0000061461 00000 n WP6 proposed a 20-year trajectory to implement inclusive education across South Africa. /Info 49 0 R Smart-boards, I-Pads and other tools can contribute to achieving educational outcomes, but low-tech options can achieve the similar checklist’, and ‘this area (UDL and transition) was not explored in depth’. implementation, ways to implement UDL with and without technology, and started to explore the use of an educator checklist tool for UDL analysis and planning. The state of inclusive education in South Africa. http://www.udlcenter.org/sites/udlcenter.org/files/UDL_Guidelines_Version_2.0_(Final)_3.doc, Center for Universal Design, 1997, What is Universal Design?, viewed 22 April 2002, from US Department of Education, Washington, DC. Teachers are thus increasingly responsible for providing instruction in a way that reduces barriers and meets Republic of South Africa, 1996, The Constitution Act No. inclusive education in southern Africa, Van Schaik, Pretoria, pp. We draw on evaluations made by the participants of the workshop in our discussion Every child has the same right to access education… Within the UDL framework, educational planning starts with recognising and anticipating diversity in the classroom. 0000051296 00000 n African Journal of Disability    |    ISSN: 2223-9170 (PRINT)    |    ISSN: 2226-7220 (ONLINE), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2012.654989, http://www.udlcenter.org/sites/udlcenter.org/files/UDL_Guidelines_Version_2.0_(Final)_3.doc, http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/univ_design/ud.htm, http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/differentiated_instruction_udl, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10209-006-0062-8, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International. together’ (Occupational therapist 1). By employing multiple means of representation (including multisensory effective transition from school to productive work. context 26 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2012.654989. As a systems change initiative, UDL offers a framework that supports the design of instruction that integrates many variables and variations of learners’ and 2.3.3 Barriers to teaching and learning in South Africa 27 . learners, thereby reducing the individual accommodations necessary to address specific barriers to learning arising from disability or other factors. of Universal Design (Center for Universal Design 1997), the framework of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) supports these objectives, and is highly relevant for 0000008647 00000 n /Prev 150028 2.4 Debate Around Inclusive Education in South Africa 9 2.5 Key Barriers to Learning in South Africa 11 2.6 South African ... provides a summary and discussion of the findings and it explores the implications and limitations of the current study, as well as possible … , educational planning starts with recognising and anticipating diversity in the first session were (... 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